一月 21, 2008

The Morality Quiz

时代周刊的封面文章,What Makes Us Moral.应该比以前网上流传的猴子版道德起源来的靠谱一些.受水平所限,翻译全文基本无理.只好玩玩后面的问答过过干瘾.另外这些都是极端情况下测试出来的选项,现实生活里碰上类似情况的可能性基本为零,所以也不要太当真了.

第一问:哭泣的婴儿.
It's war time, and you're hiding in a basement with a group of other people. Enemy soldiers are approaching outside and will be drawn to any sound. If you're found, you'll all be killed immediately. A baby hiding with you starts to cry loudly and cannot be stopped. Smothering it to death is the only way to silence it, saving the lives of everyone in the room. Assume that the parents of the baby are unknown and not present and there will be no penalty for killing the child. Could you be the one who smothered it if no one else would?
背景是战争年代,你和一堆人躲在一个基地里.敌军士兵正在外边搜寻,有什么动静马上会引起他们的注意,被发现的话将被就地格杀.然后,和你们躲在一起的一个婴儿开始大哭,声音挺响而且一时半会停不下来.看来只有掐死他才能让他安静下来不让敌人发现.另外由于婴儿的父母不在场,而且作为路人角色永远不会再出场,所以杀了婴儿不会承担任何后果.在其他人都不愿意动手的情况下,你会掐死他么?


第二问:救生船.

You're in a lifeboat with several other people. The boat is overloaded and will capsize soon killing everyone aboard unless you lighten the load by one person. One of the passengers is grievously injured and is certain to die soon, but is fully alert and aware of everything that is going on. Could you throw that person overboard, knowing that that would save everyone else and that the person would know what you were doing while you were doing it?
你和一堆人在一个救生船上.由于出题者的戏弄,这艘船超载了.如果不扔掉船上某个人的话,船翻掉之后大家就会一起仆街.出题者很善解人意的为你准备了一名重伤垂死的乘客---免掉了挑选的过程,但是他神智还算清醒,知道要发生些什么.在知道会救下整船人但是那个伤者注视着你的情况下,你会把他推到水里么?


第三问:失控的电车.


An out of control trolley is heading down a track toward five unsuspecting people and will surely kill them all. You could throw a switch diverting it to a siding, but an equally unsuspecting man is standing there and the train will kill him instead. Could you throw the switch, killing one to save five?
一架失去控制的电车正沿着轨道高速前进,前面有五个完全没察觉到状况的废柴,撞上的话肯定仆街.你手上有一个轨道切换开关,按下去之后电车会沿另一条路线前进,并且撞死站在那条线路上的一个废柴.你会按下开关,杀死那一个人来救下另五个么?

电车b
In another version of the trolley dilemma, you and the man are on a bridge and you would have to push him onto the track to save the other five.
另外一种情况,你在控制桥上,和一个倒霉蛋站在一起.你要把他推下去掉在轨道上阻止电车前进才能救下那五个.推还是不推呢?

电车c
In a third version of the trolley dilemma, you could throw a switch catapulting him onto the track, thereby not having to touch him as you kill him. Could you do either of these other scenarios?
第三种情况,你还是在控制桥上,那个倒霉蛋正在某个装置上,你按下开关之后,那个装置会恰好把他扔出去到轨道上阻止电车,也就是说虽然你要杀他,但是不用碰到他.你的选择和其他几个有什么不同么?
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